ACHIEVEMENTS OF KVK
Integrated Farming System
Integrated farming system is promoted to increase the livelihood of farmers with varied components including fish, animals and poultry besides crop component with the aim to reduce external inputs and to recycle the residue of one component as input for other component. Besides input resource management and value addition of residues such as conversion into bio compost/vermicompost and bio digestion through bio gas plant while meeting the energy needs of the farm.
The district administration has provided 15.0 lakhs for the establishment of a model unit. The unit will be completed in a few months with the establishment of protected housing for animals and poultry.
Training programmes on effective recycling of paddy straw which is abundant in this district by bio-composting through mushroom production has been organized. Vocational training in mushroom production and spawn production technology and processing and value addition were offered to vocational trainees. The working force /SHG in and around Sikkal are also being trained in the production of milky and oyster mushroom for livelihood enhancement.
Bio decomposition of farm wastes form an important role in resource management. Training on the importance of organic farming and biodecomposition of farm waste using E.M extract and efficient composting micro organism consortia. Coirpith decomposition technology has been popularized. Being acidic in nature its role in saline, sandy soil is much felt along the coast in vegetable growing pockets.
Popularizing hybrids and new varieties
CORH 3 rice hybrid was demonstrated in 7 locations during kharif 2007. The mean grain yield was 5865 kg/ha which was almost on par with ADT 43 raised in SRI system (5500 kg/ha). The yield increase with hybrids ranged from 10 to 20%. High yielding Groundnut varieties viz., VRI 2, CO3 and CO4 were successfully introduced through FLD / Seed village scheme. These varieties performed better than TMV 7 and local types and have become popular along the coast. CO3 and CO4 are bold types possessing dormancy which is a desirable character for kharif season. During Rabi 2007-08 a new Groundnut variety (TMV -13) was introduced in North Poigainallur. The red kerneled drought tolerant variety out yielded all the other varieties in all the12 locations demonstrated. The average yield recorded with this variety was 23.0 q/ha with a mean increase of 31.8% over other varieties compared. This variety has become very popular. Seed production under Seed Village programme was encouraged. Seeds were provided to 50 farmers at 40 kg each at 50% cost with adequate training on seed production technology. Hybrid vegetables Hybrids of Bhendi, tomato and chilli were popularized through OFTs and FLDs. Fl hybrids of tomato (Laxmi) and Chilli (Piriyanka) of Nunham seeds drawn attention of the vegetable growers of this tract. Multifold yields of hybrids as compared to conventional varieties attracted the farmers. Among bhendi hybrids studied Mahyco 10 has become popular for its higher yield and tolerance to yellow mosaic virus.24kg of Mahyco 10 was distributed through Dept.of Horticulture. Among tomato F1 hybrids Laxmi (NP 2005) performed well in Northpoigainallur (Nagapattinam block). This hybrid recorded more than 30 t/ac of fruits in all the locations tested and it has become popular. As high as 30 t/ha of green chillies (Priyanka) has been harvested by a farmer at Kilvelur block with integrated use of goat manure and chemical fertilizers. Pro-tray technology of vegetable seedling production was introduced. The farmers were much impressed with the type of seedlings produced and more than 2000 pro-trays was distributed to the farmers. The superiority of pro-trays seedlings was much appreciated by the farmers. This technology was popularized through Farm Science clubs and gained momentum. In the coming years entire vegetable tract (1000 acre) along the coast will be under hybrid vegetables. In fact the farmers of a vegetable village, North Poigainallur appreciated the work of the scientists of this institute and honoured in a meeting arranged for this very purpose. A shadenet nursery has been developed by a farmer for this purpose to popularize quality seedling. The reception for pro-tray seedlings is very good. Several nurseries will be developed in a short time for commercial production of vegetable seedlings. Since land and water are limiting, precision farming could not be introduced successfully as being done in other districts, in a cluster approach. However consorted efforts are taken to bring 20 ha under precision farming this year. Mortality of seedlings raised on conventional methods was 10-15 per cent as observed by a farmer in cabbage. Planting of younger seedlings (20 days) of tomato seems to establish faster than older seedlings significantly. Low cost drip system for vegetables is being introduced for small farmers to create awareness on the Water Use Efficiency in this system besides labour saving.
Popularization of Swarna sub1
In 2011- 12, 50 farmers were supplied with Swarna Sub 1 seeds with the support of Dept of Rice, TNAU, Cbe and IRRI.Submergence tolerant rice variety Swarna Sub 1, BPT sub 1, CR 1009 sub1 were cultivated in five locations under ART.Grain yield were recorded as 5990 kg / ha in Swarna sub 1 ;4902 kg / ha in BPT sub 1. More than 500 kg of Swarna Sub 1 paddy seed was produced in the KVK farm and distributed to more than 25 farmers. Swarna Sub 1 performed well under organic farming. Field days were organized to popularize Swarna Sub 1 in Sembanarkoil block Swarna sub 1 rice variety performance was better in water logged condition with a net return of Rs 33, 000/ha and BC ratio of 1: 2.1
Rice mealy bug management through mass spray campaign (2013-14)
Around 240 acres of direct sown rice in Kilvelur block, the villages viz., Anaimangalam, Okkur, Vadakarai, Kokoor, Orgudi, Kadampangudi, Venkidangal, Venmani, Vandaloor, Parapanoor and Mohanoor, were affected by rice mealy bug. Team of scientists from TNAU, KVK, Sikkal and officials from Department of Agriculture, Nagapattinam have visited the rice field and inspected the affected field at Orkudi village on 27.10.2013.The team suggested solving the problem immediately with the help of ADA, Kilvelur in collaboration with KVK, Sikkal.The direct sown rice varieties, CR1009 and BPT 5204 were severely affected by mealy bug. Situations favored the outbreak of rice mealy bug was prolonged dry spell over 2- 3 weeks, high weed density in direct seeded rice field and bunds, and undulated and improperly leveled fields led to difference in the standing water level. The team finalized the chemical, Buprofezin 25 EC @ 200 ml/acre in 200 lit of water along with wettable sulphur @ 400 g /acre using boom sprayer.,Awareness campaign on rice Mealy bug management was conducted with Kadambakudi village farmers on 28.10.2013, Kilvelur block. Around 40 farmers were participated in the awareness campaign. The same live message was broadcasted through Karaikal FM under Kissan Vani Programme. The KVK team conducted mass spraying campaign with recommended chemical Buprofezin 200ml/acre using boom sprayer on 29.10.2013, 30.10.2013 and 31.10.2013. 11 villages were covered viz., Kadambangudi, Orkudi, Okkur, Karunaveli, Vilabakkam, Poolangudi, Vandalur, Venmani, Parappanur, Mohanur, Ramancherry. The sprayed field has been completely recovered from mealy bug problem. Around 297.65 acres has been covered..
Mass spraying of Pink Pigmented Facultative Mmethylotrophs(PPFM) to Mitigate Water Stress in Samba PaddyIn Nagapattinam District around 96000 ha of rice crop were raised during Samba 2013-14. Out of 11 blocks, Nagapattinam, Keelaiyur, and Kilvelur blocks were affected by drought. Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Nagapattinam was given foliar spraying of PPFM with boom sprayer and 135 liters of PPFM were distributed to the farmers through Asst.Director of Agri. for mitigating drought in rice crop under the guidance of TNAU. Around 82 farmers with 276 hectares of rice field were covered in Nagapattinam district
System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
System of Rice Intensification was demonstrated in 92 locations at Mayiladuthurai and Kuthalam blocks (2005 - 06). Increase in the yield of grain ranged from 500 kg – 1500 kg/ha apart from saving in labour up to Rs. 2000/ha. The response for SRI system was satisfactory among the farmers. This system is highly suitable for summer, kuruvai and early samba rice. This system is getting very popular and the present area under this system is 58,000 ha. SRI method of rice cultivation was given importance invariably in all the training programmes.• Training and demonstrations organized on farmer friendly practices for getting straight rows in order to facilitate inter cultivation operation without damaging rice crop. A single row motorized cono weeder was developed by the KVK – active farmer and technology refined for large scale adoption. • Grain yield of Single row power weeder operated fields was 6290 kg/ha, Manual cono weeder- 6200 kg/ha and double row power weeder -5800 kg/ha and highest BC ratio 1:2:12 were recorded. • Weeding through manaual cono weeder and single row power weeder are very efficient than double row power weeder.
Seed Village Scheme
Quality seeds plays important role in maximing production. 10 to 15% yield increase is possible with quality seeds. Since the availability of quality seed is not sufficient, this programme has been implemented by GOI. Since the district administration also giving more importance on seed production and has targeted to increase certified seed production from the present 18% to 33% percent of the requirement importance was given for seed production training programme to the farmers, farm science club members and self help groups and 26 such trainings were offered to 955 beneficiaries in this district. To promote quality seed production for their own use and to meet the need of their village, quality seed material at subsidised rate along with training on seed production technology was offered to the farmers of Nagapattinam district. During 2007 and 2008, 790 farmers were benefited from this scheme and were provided with 17530 kg of quality seed material of rice (ADT 43, ADT 45 and CR 1009) obtained from research stations and 480 pulses growers and 50 groundnut farmers were benefited and were provided with 3860 kg of pulses seed (Greengram and Blackgram) and 2000 kg of groundnut pods (TMV 13) and 800 gm of vegetable seeds for the vegetable growers were distributed since 2007-08 (Rabi).
Acorus calamus (Vasambu) has been successfully introduced as an alternate crop in the low lands of Sembanarkoil block under RSVY - Horticulture scheme. An area of 25 acres was successfully raised by SHG. A net income of Rs.30,000 per acre was obtained. The Mean yield was 4.0 t/acre of fresh tubers. The crop matured in 10 to 12 months. Another 25 acres were cultivated in kharif 2006 under this scheme. Vasambu has become popular as an alternate crop for wet lands. The present area under vasambu has exceeded 120 acres in this district. Hybrid Maize (COHM-5) was successfully demonstrated in 25 locations (One acre each) during kharif 2006. The grain yield was comparatively high in clay – loam soils of Sirkali (2,600 kg/ac) when compared to sandy soils of Vedaranyam block (1,500 ha/ac). Development of Agroforestry in the delta plays an important role in crop diversification. Since rice growing becoming more and more uneconomical developing agroforestry is gaining importance. Casuarina junghuhniana a rapid growing species is gaining popularity in Nagapattinam district. Quality seed was procured from IFGTB, Coimbatore, multiplied and distributed to farmers. Besides Casuarina, thornless bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) is becoming popular in Tanjore and Thiruvarur. Hence demonstration in 25 cents, in 8 holdings has been taken up with a spacing of 5x5 m. Bamboo is becoming a commercial crop, since the industrial use of thornless bamboo is wide. Winter Vegetables (Cabbage, Knol-khol, Cauliflower and French beans) have been successfully introduced and were assessed for their performance in the post monsoon season of 2005. Cabbage (Hari Rani) matured in 100 days recording 17.5 to 20.0 t/ha. French beans (Sel. 9) matured in 65 days and recorded 7.2 t/ha of green pods. Knol-khol (White Vienna) matured in 55 days and recorded 25.0 t/ha. Cabbage and French bean have become very popular across the District.
Since labour scarcity is posing great threat for agriculture, especially in the delta region where planting and other field operations has to be done simultaneously, mechanization of farm operation has been popularized successfully.
Sowing paddy seeds in puddled condition using seed drum developed from TNAU was introduced during kharif 2006. this device is more suitable for summer, kuruvai and early samba crops. The performance of the crop raised with seed drum was equally good as that of transplanted crop with a net saving of Rs. 5000/- per ha. since 20 cm spacing is provided in between rows, weeding with conoweeder can be done effectively. An area of one hectare can be sown in a day by two workers. The seed requirement is also less (15 kg/acre) as compared to 40 kg/ha used for broadcasting. There is a saving of 65 mandays per hectare as compared to transplanting without yield reduction. Use of conoweeder resulted in further saving of 40 mandays per hectare as compared to conventional weeding. The seed drum was demonstrated in the farmers field during 2007. More than 20 seed drums were sold from this institute. Large scale adoption was seen in Kollidam block with 75 acre during Kuruvai 2008 and 40 acres during early samba season. A net reduction of Rs. 2500/- per acre in the cost of cultivation was reported by the farmers by way of labour saving. Non availability of seed drum suppressed the spread of this technology. About 500 ac. of samba paddy (2008-09) was under direct sowing with seed drum. The spread will be fast in the years to come.
Conoweeder plays an important role in SRI/drum seeded paddy. Availability of conoweeder is low since the fabrication requires extra skill, thus limiting the spread of SRI/direct sowing with drum seeder. For this purpose 12 rural artisans were trained with the assistance of FMRC, TNAU in the fabrication of conoweeder, rotary weeder and line marker to hasten the availability, as desired by the Directorate of Agriculture, Chennai.
Machine transplanting was also demonstrated using the product of Yanmar of Japan. Eight row diesel operated machine was demonstrated on 15.09.2008. The demonstration was witnessed by more than 200 farmers. Telecast of this demonstration was made in several channels. This machine is capable of transplanting 1 acre in one hour. Training in nursery production for this purpose has also been demonstrated since specific size of seedling mats are required for this machine. This machine is more useful for samba/Thaladi rice crops where SRI planting is not possible. Planting of aged seedlings could be avoided and thus improving GDP
Integrated Nutrient Management and Integrated Pest Management
INM and IPM demonstration with high yielding varieties of Groundnut were conducted during kharif 2007, 2008 and Rabi 2009. Use of biofertilizers, gypsum application, micronutrient application were given importance in INM and installation of pheromone traps and need based chemical, biocide in IPM were demonstrated in 12 location (5 ha) at Vellappallam. North Poigainallur and Poraiyar. Yield increase by 27.4% at Vellapallam 19.0% at North Poigainallur was demonstrated. This has created awareness among the farmers of the groundnut growing tract where incidence of disease like collor rot and pest incidence particularly spodoptera is not uncommon. Bold kernels by gypsum application both at basal and at pod formation stage along with micronutrients drawn attention of the farmers. Gingelly TMV 4 was demonstrated with INM practices in 12 locations at Illupur and Nangudi villages of Kilvelur block during summer (February) 2007. Unexpected heavy rainfall damaged the entire crop. However the demonstration were repeated during April 2007 in six locations. INM practices including micronutrient application recorded 6 q/ha as compared to conventional practice (2q/ha). The demonstration will be taken up at Kilvelur block in the ensuing season. Under front line demonstration of GOI on pulses, Rice fallow pulses with nutrient management practices and IPM practices was conducted in 25 locations at Sembanarkoil block during 2007-08. Unexpected heavy rains completely damaged the crop. The demonstration is in progress in 20 locations at Sirkali and Nagapattinam blocks. The importance of micronutrients and growth regulators also was demonstrated in gourds. Use of Ethrel at 100 ppm for snakegourd and 250 ppm for ribbed gourd by foliar application four times at weekly interval starting from 15 days besides use of micronutrients (5kg/ha) improved the yield of snake gourd (12 t/ha), bitter gourd (12.5 t/ha) and ribbed gourd (12.3 t/ha) with a mean increase over control by 20.3%, 11.1% and 16.4% respectively. This demonstration has created awarness on the use of micronutrients, and growth regulators for gourds for improving the yield, while reducing mal formation of fruits. Coconut forms an important crop in the coastal stretch occupying an area of 3000 ha. The average yield ranges from 40-50 nuts/annum/tree. Micronutrient deficiency and pest incidence (Red palm weevil and Rhinoceros beetle) poses major problem in this region. Series of trainings and demonstrations on INM and IPM practices were conducted along the coastal stretch to overcome the situations. About 400 coconut farmers were benefited from these demonstrations and trainings.
Integrated Rodent Management
The crop damage due to rodent menace in rice during cropping season ranged 10-12.5 % in samba and thaladi. While in rice fallow pulses the damage was 40-50 %. As pulse crop (Black gram, Green gram) are the most prefered food, rodent control through poison bait is not effective. Demonstrations conducted on rat management revealed that application of Phorate10G,10-15 gm per live burrow during plastering the rice field bunds and plugging the burrows air tight with mud balls significantly reduced rodent activity and reduced crop damage to the extent of 86 - 93 % as compared to the existing practices like setting up of Tanjore bow trap @ 50/ac (63 %) and poison baiting with zinc phosphide (56 %). This technology is being popularized through FLDs. Hands-on-training and interaction sessions were conducted on rodent management in rice, groundnut and coconut plantations and suitable messages/technologies disseminated directly in the training programmes, mass media as well as through field functionaries. Several large level integrated rodent management campaigns conducted in collaboration with Dept. of Agriculture at Nagapattinam, Sirkali, Thirukuvalai and Thirukadaiyur blocks of this district. Six state level trainings on integrated rodent management were imparted under macro mode management by to the extension functionaries of this state. Besides, a total of 375 farm advisory visits/farmers enquiries attended by the scientists of this KVK and suitable remedies have been advocated.
Organic farming is given importance for improving the soil health for sustainable production. A Vermi technology unit at a cost of 1.0 lakh has been established at this station. Farmers, SHGs and rural youth are given training on vermicompost production and biodegradation of organic wastes including coirpith for effective utilization of available resources. Since September 2005, 1580 persons were given training at this unit. Awareness has been created on soil health and organic farming to sustain production. So far 30.0 mt of vermicompost has been produced from this unit. Field demonstration on organic inputs (vermicompost and pressmud compost) in 11 locations and use of enriched biogas slurry in 10 locations have also been conducted in different crops (paddy, groundnut and vegetables) with the financial assistance obtained from NCOF Ghaziabad. Since the vegetable tract lies in the sandy stretch, use of Coir dust and vermicompost in improving the water use efficiency was demonstrated in French bean and chilli in four locations each. Use of 5 t/ha each of coirpith compost and vermicompost over recommended chemical fertilizer improved the yield of French beans (Selection -9) by 16.3% and chilli (Piriyanka) by 16.7% over conventional practices (FYM + fertilizer). Awareness in the use of bio-fertilizer and other beneficial micro organisms (biocides) has been created. The effect of improved strain of pseudomonas was demonstrated in rice to check rice blast and sheath rot which is common in this tract. Seed treatment at 10gm/kg seed and foliar application at 400gm dissolved in 100 litres water at 15 days interval twice during flowering was followed. The treated crop was free from pest and diseases . Since the damage was more to due to pests especially sucking pests and borers, indiscriminate use of chemicals are being followed. Bio intensive management of pests and diseases was demonstrated in chillies using yellow sticky traps for sucking pests, pheromone traps for borer (Spodoptera) besides seedlings treated with Trichoderma kept the crop free from pests and diseases significantly when compared with un treated (control crop). The yield of green chillies was 5600 kg/ha in Rabi planted crop and 9800 kg/ha from kharif planted crop which as 167 per cent higher than control during rabi and 227% higher during kharif. Damage due to sucking pests and borers was reported at 40-50% in chilli. Awareness has been created in the use of yellow sticky trap for the control of sucking pests and pheromone traps and NPV for the control of spodoptera among the vegetables growers. Use of other biocides (Bt, Verticillium and Baevaria) will be demonstrated in the future to reduce indiscriminate use of pesticides in vegetable crops.
Out of 20 ha allotted for KVK, Nagapattinam only 10 ha could be implemented and six of them have already started cultivation. However quality seedling production through protrays and the effectiveness of drip system though drumkits are being demonstrated through FLDs. Protray vegetable seedling production has gained popularity among the vegetable growers of this district. Being a successful farming system it has been proposed to extend technical support to a smaller unit area (one acre) with the financial support from the banks and assistance from NABARD under “Hi-Tech vegetable production” along the coast in a cluster, since water availability and size of holdings are limited.
Water Harvesting and Management
Water availability is scarce for six months from February to July, where as abundant water is seen for the rest of six months. Since the soil is deep impeded clay, harvesting water during the monsoon and conserving for a few months is always possible in this tract. A model pond has been erected with the assistance of Agricultural Engineering Department and economic use of water is being demonstrated for effective utilization of water for supplemental irrigation for crops during summer months. Micro irrigation training with the assistance of GOI funds is being given to the farmers of this tract, particularly for those who are installing drip irrigation system. Eight batches each with 25 persons were trained last year on micro irrigation. Sprinkler irrigation with the harvested water for effective utilization for less water required crops (Pulses, gingelly, Groundnut) has been demonstrated to the extension functionaries of the department of Agriculture at KVK on 18.2.2009.